Saturday, February 8, 2020

Descartes Philosophy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Descartes Philosophy - Essay Example The cause of the 'magnetism' is the magnet. This form of circular causal reasoning would have had been insufficient for Descartes and it is in this context of a world that is founded on such archaic Aristotelian principles that he meditates the cogito. Descartes wanted knowledge derived from natural science to have the clear and distinct properties of mathematical and geometrical concepts. Descartes presents his method in The Meditations. In order to evaluate its significance to his own philosophy it is imperative to demonstrate how he reaches the conclusion of the cogito. In order to build a proper epistemic approach to knowledge Descartes asks us to suspend our beliefs in propositions whose truth it is possible to doubt even in the slightest. As Descartes advances through the first meditation, our principles for acknowledging reality are elevated ever higher as he demolishes the capacities of recollection and the senses and even rationale in this respect. He presents three skeptica l arguments to fortify doubt, the dream argument, the interventionist creator-God and the imperfect creator/imperfect creation arguments. Discussion and Analysis The first argument, the dream argument says that there is no definite way to discern between when I am awake and when I am dreaming therefore, it is possible that I am dreaming right now and hence that all of my perceptions and sensations are false. It can be said against this that dreams are often hazy and are surreal with an unusual and we can always tell if we are able to dream. But for every notion we have of defining a boundary between dreams and being in a state of awakeness. One other problem with the dream argument as an argument for universal doubt is that it does not cause problems for self-evident 'truths' such as mathematical and geometrical concepts. To introduce the hyperbolic doubt Descartes needs to arrive at the cogito he must conceive of an argument that would make mathematics and logical validity dubitabl e. In order to do this he conceives of God as an all-powerful creator. Because of the omnipotence of God it is possible for Him to disrupt the truth of ideas we perceive as distinctly and clearly such as tautologies and analytic mathematical propositions. The first objection against this argument is that some people would not believe in a God that had sufficient power as to remove the certainty from clear and distinct ideas. Descartes reasons out of this problem by arguing that if our creator-God is less than perfect then we have even more reason to doubt because of our origins from an imperfect being. The other problem from this rebuttal is that assuming that there is a perfect God then it would be contradictory to his perfect being to deceive us. Another point, a God who deceives could have created our minds so that they could we can always have frequently or indeed always, have false thoughts. Accordingly, when we are calculating 2+2=4 and believing it to be self-evident we could be suffering an intervention from an omnipotent God to trick us to believing. It would seem that Descartes has now called even reason itself into doubt. By showing all knowledge is dubitable in the first meditation the significance of the Cogito for Descartes becomes clear. What if Descartes would be able to offer a cognitive principle that would

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Rogers Chocolates Essay Example for Free

Rogers Chocolates Essay What is competition like in the premium chocolate industry? Which of the five competitive forces is strongest? Which is weakest? What competitive forces seem to have the greatest effect on industry attractiveness and the potential profitability of new entrants? The premium chocolate industry is having an intensive competition in Canada with the strong growth potential. Industry growth opportunity imposes increasing competition from rivals and threats of new entrance that adds pressure on overall profitability. Even though Roger’s has been able to establish its place in the chocolate industry with its strong brand recognition and products’ quality, it still needs to be on top of ever- going market changes, by continuously monitoring, crafting and updating its marketing and packaging strategies. Only then it can sustain its competitiveness from the front line rivals. For that, intensity of rivalry among competitors and the threat of new entrants are considered the strongest competitive force, given the fact that the premium chocolate market was growing at 20 percent annually. Given that Rogers’ Chocolates has successfully targeted market niche by its strategy based on differentiation, and by concentrating on narrow consumers segment comprising of affluent customers looking for a luxury experience with a superior taste or an elegant, prestigious and uncommon product, it can be said that the weakest competitive force for Rogers’ is the bargaining power of buyers and the suppliers. Differentiation and niche market remedies the opportunity of price fixing. The threat of substitute products is also at the weakest point, given the fact that Rogers’ chocolates are fairly expensive relative to others in market. Their distinctive hand-packaging process and quality ingredients are not much appealing for others to copy and imitate. The rapid growth and profit prospects factors are attractive enough to induce additional entry to this industry. For that, every chocolate producer is challenged to craft a successful strategy that is strong enough to fight for its profit in competition battle. The competition of the premium chocolate industry is strong. There are some regional brand businesses and some large companies. The key market competitors that are Rogers’s direct rivals are summarized in the table: Company Name| Price| Quality| Packaging| Distribution| Advertising| Godiva| 15 % High than Rogers on standard products and double/triple price on premium chocolate| Not as high as Rogers| Strong; glitzy, sleek modern. Chocolates of various colors molding| Retailers of gift items| Strong| Bernard Callebaut| Similar to Godiva| Good , excelled in new flavour introductions| Superior could be customized at the store| 32 stores across the West, US and Ontario| Great seasonal displays| Lindt| 90% of Rogers| Mid-range| Mid-range| Broad : mass merchandisers, drug grocery retailers| Strong| Purdys| 35% lower than Rogers| Lower than Rogers| Good| 50 locations based in malls , strongest presence in BC| Good, offers discounts on volume purchase| Rogers| Premium price, however low than Godivas Bernard Callebauts| High| hand packaging, old fashioned, not appealing to young consumers| Company owned stores; online mail orders, wholesaling, Sams Deli| Limited to Victorias area| Question 2 How is the premium chocolate industry changing? What are the underlying drivers of change and how might those driving forces individually or collectively change competition in the industry? The premium chocolate industry is showing its shift towards healthy nutrition trend and consumers’ market that is more health conscious about their diet. Purchasers are also demanding more from chocolate than its taste. In line with a broad social trend for healthier diets, the demand for organic products, including organic chocolates, is growing. Consumers are looking for products with no trans-fats, as well. Demand for dark chocolate, traditionally less popular than milk chocolate in North America is growing in part because of its heart-healthy anti-oxidant properties. With the increasing trend in healthy diet preference, the underlying drivers of change of competition in premium chocolate industry at the strongest level are the buyers’ preferences for differentiated, refined products, instead of standardized ordinary products that are no longer demanded. In addition, baby boomers generation with their disposable income are spending a lot on high quality premium chocolates. Moreover, consumers and employees are also demanding chocolate companies to follow good corporate social responsibility practices in addressing the environmental concerns in terms of how to design its packaging, procurement and operational decisions. Human rights concerns are also high in terms of consumer expectations of chocolate companies with respect of forced child labour in West Africa. All of these driving forces societal concerns, attitudes and change in lifestyles, are strong enough to shape up the competition and impose the constraint on chocolate industry profitability and competitive survival. One important underlying driver of change in the chocolate industry is the large manufacturers lobbying to change the definition of the term chocolate under USFDA guidelines, if they are successful in doing this then this could potentially have a dramatic impact on the competitive environment, with lots of cheaper products flooding the market. If lots of cheaper brands of chocolates suddenly become available and prices start dropping this could creep into the premium brand segment of the market and force companies like Rogers to lower their prices. Question 3 What key factors determine success for producers of premium chocolates? Rogers’ customers are attracted to the company because of its superior quality. Customers who tasted Rogers’ chocolate are willing to pay its high price because of Rogers’ superior quality, â€Å"Ooooh , Rogers’ That is the best chocolate I’ve ever tested. † (pg. C-185) Key factors that determine success for producers of premium chocolates, looking only at the quality and the product characteristics prospective are: * Taste and quality * Quality ingredients * Price * Package * Advertising * Distribution. The key factors that determine success for producers at the functional levels are: * Marketing – The appeal and quality of the packaging has a big impact on the sales of chocolate and a good advertising campaign to make the brand name well known * Distribution – Having a good distribution network to get product to market in a timely manner and favourable display space * Technology – The use of new technology to reduce labour intensive production methods to reduce production costs * Manufacturing- The availability of labour, ability to produce quality product and achieving economies of scale * Skills Capability- Having talented employees with knowledge of chocolate to continue product innovation, required production management and supply chain management skills and software for accurate decision making * Other- Location of retail stores are also important. * Strong leader and management team who agree on the companies strategic vision and are able to communicate it successfully to all employees Question 4 What does a SWOT analysis of Rogers Chocolates reveal about the prospects for companys future success? What are its key resources strengths and competitive capabilities? its resource weaknesses and competitive liabilities? its external opportunities and threats? Roger’s Chocolates has a good base to succeed in the chocolate industry and increase their market share in Canada and internationally by revamping their brand image, improving their internal production process, increasing their online sales, building stronger management teams, investing in technology to improve their production schedule, forecasting and marketing. The SWOT analysis presented below highlights the company’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats: Strengths and Competitive Capabilities * One of the oldest chocolate companies in Canada with a wide range of the highest quality unique chocolate assortments including: an Ice cream line, specialty products, no-sugar added chocolates * Use of natural ingredients. * The company has an impressive loyal customers base around the world * Loyal employees that share company’s value for the higher quality of products * Superior quality of company’s products; in 2006 the company won prestigious Superior Taste award from the International Taste Quality Institute * Company provides excellent retail experience and in 2000 won the Innovative Retailer of the Year award Weaknesses and Competitive Deficiencies * Higher priced products * Labour intense and costly production process. * The company didn’t establish standards to measure its productivity or efficiency * Difficulties with the evaluation of seasonal customers demand, as a result the company carries large inventories * Seasonal problems with out-of stock items result in loss of sales, and production schedule chaos * Unreliable suppliers of art tins. * Unattractive packaging to younger consumers * Difficulty with the prediction of the required production volume of ice cream * Interruptions of the production process with the special orders commitments * Employees resistance to change * Lack of organic or fair trade capabilities Market Opportunities * Projected premium chocolate market’s growth at 20% annually, as baby boomers consume more premium chocolates. * Increased demand for organic and dark chocolates * Pre- Christmas sales demand is growing * Strong brand recognition in the Victoria area, and a â€Å"corporate gift of choice† * Possibilities of Increasing online orders * Cruise port travellers. * Become supplier to Butchart Garden’s gift shop and other tourist destinations on Vancouver Island * 2010 Olympics External Threats * Threat by Hershey’s and Cadbury companies which are growing their presence on the premium chocolate market by acquiring and taking over small companies. * Growing environmental concern * Growing customers concerns related to West Africa’s child labor rights * Some of the big corporate purchasers of Roger’s products such as Second Cup and the Bay switched to low cost providers and concentrate on developing their own line of products * Decline of the US dollars * Poor wholesale presentation of Rogers’ products * Poor Brand recognition outside of BC Question 5 How would you describe Rogers Chocolates competitive strategy? How is it positioned in the industry? What specific steps has management taken to implement this strategy? Do the companys functional strategies and tactics appear to be consistent with its competitive strategy? Rogers’ Chocolate functional strategies are consistent with their competitive strategy. Of the five generic competitive strategies (overall low-cost provider, broad differentiation, focused low-cost, focused differentiation and best-cost provider) the one that best aligns with Roger’s Chocolate competitive strategy is focused differentiation. A focused differentiation strategy means that the company concentrates on serving a narrow buyer segment or niche market. Roger’s Chocolates targets affluent customers with high disposable incomes specifically baby boomers, established families, middle-aged childless couples and empty nesters. Roger’s Chocolates is positioned in the industry as a manufacturer, distributor and retailer of premium chocolates, its main products being high quality, hand-wrapped chocolates. Specific steps Roger’s Chocolates’ management has taken to implement this focused differentiation strategy included * Setting a high price point for its products * Individually hand wrapping their products to give it an elegant, prestigious and uncommon look. * Targeting cruise ship visitors and tourists, as these people tend to have higher disposable income and fit the target demographic. * Advertising in guide magazines and Enroute magazine Air Canada flights to reach tourists as well as seasonal print, radio and TV advertising. The company’s functional strategies and tactics is consistent with its competitive strategy as demonstrated by the tight control it exerts over its brand image, it refuses to lower is prices to compete as this might cheapen its brand image, it also rejected the idea to franchise because it did not want to lose control over the brand and pricing, its manufacturing facility is labour intensive because the company places value on having hand wrapped chocolates. Question 6 How well is Rogers Chocolates strategy working in terms of the financial performance it is delivering? What is your assessment of its level of profitability, its degree of liquidity, and the extent of its leverage? | | | | 2006| 2005| Profitability Ratios| | | | | Growth Profit Margin| | 54. 56%| 55. 16%| Operating Margin| | | 9. 73%| 12. 68%| Net Profit Margin| | | 7. 52%| 8. 92%| Return on Total Assets| | 10. 62%| 12. 57%| Return on Equity| | | 15. 71%| 22. 36%| | | | | | | Liquidity Ratios| | | | | Current Ratio| | | 136. 66%| 124. 49%| Quick Ratio| | | 46. 12%| 57. 85%| Working Capital| | | 625,109| 569,876| | | | | | | Leverage Ratios| | | | | Debt-to-Assets Ratio| | 32. 43%| 43. 88%| Long-Term Debt-to-Capital Ratio| 15. 21%| 22. 79%| Debt-to-Equity Ratio| | 48. 00%| 78. 18%| Long-Term Debt-to-Equity Ratio| 17. 94%| 29. 51%| Times-Interest-Earned Ratio| | 12. 61| 17. 49| | | | | | | Activity Ratios| | | | | Days of Inventory| | | 104. 64| 105. 24| Inventory Turnover| | | 3. 49| 3. 47| Average Collection Period| | 11. 06| 22. 86| Although Rogers is profitable in 2006, their sales and profit are down slightly from 2005. Gross margin is consistent but all other profitability measures are down. ROE is reduced 6% from 2005. The company’s operating margin is reduced 3%, reducing profitability from operations. The company’s current ratio has increased from 1. 24 to 1. 37, but the quick ratio has decreased. The company increased their ability to pay the current debt. The working capital has also increased, giving the company more funds to purchase equipment and investment. The company is in a very good leverage position. The long-term debt –to capital ratio is 15% in 2006, giving them more capacity to borrow additional funds. All leverage ratios have improved from 2005 except times interest earned. In addition, due to Sam’s Deli $200k increase in salaries and benefits increase, the selling and administrative expense have increased, leaving cash at only $112,185 in 2006. The days of inventory are more than 100 days. Since the company spends a lot of cash on inventory and equipment, so there is a big concern that Rogers may not have enough cash and receivables to pay its payables and long term debt. Question 7 What specific actions should Steve Parkhill undertake to improve Rogers competitiveness in the Canadian Premium Chocolate Industry? How will the culture of the organization impact Parkhills decision? As a relatively new CEO, how would you suggest that Parkhill reconcile the competing growth suggestions championed by various members of the Board of Directors? Place Open a small location in Butchart Gardens to tap into the change in tourist travel patterns. Open franchising location outside of Victoria/Vancouver/BC area if they are profitable given ROI/NPV valuation, provided there is a good franchise agreement that can maintain the image of Rogers Chocolates. Boost efforts in capturing and creating a competitive advantage in the online store and corporate gift markets. Establish wholesale or reseller relationship with American companies, at least in the Seattle area due to its close proximity to BC/Vancouver, which will allow Rogers to better reach the affluent target market in the States. It should extend its wholesale distribution outside of British Columbia, especially to Ontario which is its second largest geographical market. Promotion Provide wholesalers/retailer with more incentives, such as sales promotions, especially in the important seasonal periods to improve the display of in-store Rogers products. Instead of obtaining more stores in the Vancouver or BC area, which is capital intensive, provide greater incentives, such as discounts or sales promotions, for more retail/wholesale channels to offer Rogers products, and to gain more prominent in-store displays to increase sales through the 2010 Olympics. Increase the advertising budget to include other provinces, and more mass marketing. Product Reduce the number of products offered to premium products that only have a history of selling well, and have good growth/profitability potential due to derived demand. Keep the brand identity/integrity, but update and standardize the packaging so that it is more modern, appealing and consistent. Operations Divest the ownership of Sams Deli, and concentrate on selling core products from a smaller retail space within Sams Deli. Rogers should improve production processes, lower labour costs, increase efficiency, lower lead-time and inventory on hand. Most of these can be achieved through computerization (ex. accounting, forecasting, scheduling), normalization of sales history, and better demand forecasts. If it can do this, then initially it does not need to increase capacity. If it cannot, then it should relocate off island where the production facilities are more modern, and transportation is cheaper. Improve the company’s management teams communication and change its silo mentality. The culture of Rogers is very good, and provides a strong resource that cannot be easily copied by competitors. Instead of changing it, the new CEO should communicate and educate the staff and board of directors that the changes implemented will improve the long-term outlook of the Rogers while maintaining its long roots, and keeping its core values and approach to business. Since the majority of the board of directors are owners of the business, and require the CEO to double or triple the business, they have vested interest in the long term outlook of Rogers Chocolates. As such, their concerns and varying strategies can be set aside if he effectively communicates that his chosen strategy, of refocusing on a niche differentiating strategy, will improve profitability and growth.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Kids :: essays research papers

Introduction: A) Broad discussion of topics: Discuss Kristin's thesis 1. Evolution and understanding of it Macro vs. Micro VIST framework Darwin/Mayr 2. Tools-language Open vs. Close ended questions How vs. why questions Best way of asking to reveal causal framework -explain causal framework: Essentialism (Gelman), Teleology (Keleman), Bloom, and Theory of Mind Ultimate Cause (natural) Why questions Proximate cause How questions 3. Children's and adults understanding of biology/evolution/metamorphosis Evans Species-proximity to humans Mayr 4. Natural kinds vs. artifacts 5. Creationist-God...wanted, created, gave, made Naturalistic-need, adaptations, evolve, growth Intelligent design- intention, purposeful B) Rationale for this study 1. Give close-ended questions to younger children so they can understand the broad questions and because they may not be able to ellaborate or communicate well enough. Hood/Bloom: When children start answering causal questions of parents and when they start asking questions of their own. C) Hypothesis (still being established...have to wait until finished coding Kristin's data to predict the results of mine) Method subjects: 20-25 Age: 5 and 6 years Gender: 1/2 male and 1/2 female open-ended questions -divided into how and why - questions taken from coding results of previous study done by Krisitn - analyzed and took the most typical explanations Present the most frequent of those close-ended questions presented to older age group with 1 explanation per pattern : 4 reasoning patterns: (Will be inserted in paper with actual questions once the data has all been coded and analyzed from Kristin's study) Questions altered to fit all items Use item used with older kids to see if they are giving the answers the older kids did. Procedure 4 parts of the procedure will be given sequentially: 1. Warm-up 9 items (pictures) looking at interacting Ask child if the card is an animal or a human to see if they understand 2. Card practice agree/disagree face cards 3. Open-ended questions "how/why do you think..." between subjects footnote Kristin's study 4. Close-ended questions 3 humans, 3 butterflies, 3 frogs, 3 mammals, 3 artifacts order randomly determined without replacement once item is chosen: They will be told

Monday, January 13, 2020

Professional Ethics Statement: Ethical Foundations Essay

Ron Brown’s your ethical framework and principles are to make amends where possible. Ron Brown must employ the ethics of being concerned for others, empathetic, responsible, accountable, grateful, motivated, and seek God’s grace which will be my only salvation. These character traits shape the makings of the best ethical position which will amount to Ron Brown’s success with mankind and God. Personally, when dealing with people Ron Brown’s ethical view consists of respect, consideration, gratitude, acknowledge of boundaries, cooperation, and honesty, trustworthiness, and kindness influences Mr. Ron’s perception of the people when working with and teaching. These are the area that warrant more care and affect differently the body Many individuals feel sucked into the black-hole or the abyss of empty ethics following a leaders’ vision to personally survive. Michael Joseph’s video suggested that ethics is more likely pushed aside when it comes to complying with an organizational culture. Many of the individuals feel sucked into the black-hole or the abyss of empty ethics to personally survive. This is the body of â€Å"everyday, ordinary life† as Palmer (2004) states there is absorption of jobs where people are working to pay bills, there is a limit on achieving dreams, constant making excuses, the world responsibilities carried on the backs of all human beings. Here it is, sitting in a mess without true deliverance. For example, rationalizations may appear when instructors may take off points on a graduate student’s paper only due to the fact that it was late. Maybe the student did not understand the due date. The ethical sticking to the policy even if it hurts the student represent a higher education’s established ethics despite the destruction of a students moral and grade. Particularly when a student first starts the online venture, the student is not quite sure of all of the procedures. When the ethics of the company or organization fails the people then it is time to reconsider the restructuring of the ethic that hold the mortar of future education and survival of Americans in the world work market (Bonhoeffer, 1995; Palmer, 2004; Borgmann, 2006; Butterfield, 2003). The body of â€Å"everyday, ordinary life† is laden with a heavy exoskeleton. This imaginary yet invisible shell that Ron Brown hides serves to temporarily protect, excrete, sense, support, feed and act as some supportive barrier against terrestrial organisms and desiccation (Butterfield, 2003). Exoskeletons serve to establish defenses from predators, pests and protection from unwarranted possible invasions while clinging to fear. People not comprehending my plight as an artist, musician, scholar, free mind in an over structured society holding fast to their rubrics of life, yet unforgiving and judgmental. Reference: American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Bonhoeffer, D. (1995). Ethics. (N. H. Smith, Trans.). New York, NY: Borgmann, A. (2006). Real American ethics: Taking responsibility for our country. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Butterfield, N. J. (2003). Exceptional fossil preservation and the Cambrian explosion. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 43(1) 166–177. Palmer, P. (2004). A hidden wholeness: The journey toward an undivided life. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Duracell Marketing Plan - 3163 Words

I. Executive Summary #61656; Duracell is a member of the Gillette Co. and is the alkaline battery market leader holding approximately 50 percent of the U.S. market share. Duracell has been forced to realign its prices in order to stay competitive with competitors who have introduced lower-cost brands. New advances in technology calls for the latest devices to be smaller, lighter, and more portable. Additionally, this new technology is placing increased demand for a stronger power supply and that is why Duracell has launched a new line of batteries called Prismatics. Prismatics will utilize a unique flat battery design that will provide a more compact platform for device manufactures to build new products on. The goals in the marketing†¦show more content†¦Ã‚• It will be sold directly to electronic manufactures and to consumers via specialty and general retail stores • Batteries will also be sent separately to general retailers, online vendors, electronic specialty stores, camera stores, and wherever compatible portable electronic devices are sold #61656; When do customers purchase the firms products? • Purchase of batteries often complements an initial purchase of a toy or electronic device that says Batteries not included • Consumers are often reminded to purchase batteries by the cashier at the store or by seeing another customer in the store buying batteries and be reminded of their own portable power needs • Seasonal spikes in alkaline battery consumption occur around Christmas, summer, and the hurricane season. Also consumption may vary depending on the lifestyle and frequency of travel of the consumer #61656; Why (and how) do customers select the firms products? • The Duracell name means reliability to consumers and that is why their products are trusted by customers everyday • They use the most advanced technologies to ensure that the power is there when the customers need it to be • The main conflict that Duracell has right now is with consumers deciding toShow MoreRelated4 Ms of Marketing Essay3050 Words   |  13 PagesMarketing Management MKTG – 508-010 Spring 2010 Dr. Walter Kendall Submitted by Shagun Nagpal On Mar 27th 2010 Tarleton State University Abstract Marketing is a combination of activity and set of institutions that create, communicate deliver and exchange services that have values to society including customers and clients. 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Saturday, December 28, 2019

Fact Verses Fiction in OBriens The Things They Carried...

Fact Verses Fiction in OBriens The Things They Carried The difference between fairy tales and war stories is that fairy tales begin with Once upon a time, while war stories begin with Shit, I was there! (Lomperis 41). How does one tell a good war story? Is it important to be accurate to the events that took place? Does the reader need to trust the narrator? In The Things They Carried, Tim OBrien examines what it takes to tell a good war story. He uses his own experiences in Vietnam in conjunction with his imagination to weave together a series of short stories into a novel. First, the reader must understand just what makes a good war story. The protagonist of the novel, Tim OBrien, gives us his†¦show more content†¦In the chapter Speaking of Courage Norman Bowker claims that he is responsible for his friends death. However, in the chapter In the Field OBrien places the blame on an unnamed young soldier who started the enemy attack by turning on his flashlight. Which story is true? Does it matter what is true? According to Jim Neilson, the story of Kiowas death evokes the notion that for the U.S. Vietnam was a quagmire; his drowning functions almost emblematically to suggest Americas deepening entanglement in southeast Asia (193). Whatever the meaning behind Kiowas story, it certainly fits the requirements for a good war story: there is nothing redeemable in it. Maria Bonn sees the three stories about Kiowas death (Speaking of Courage, Notes, and In the Field) as exemplifying OBriens relentless investigation of how to tell a true war story (para graph 39). When you look at all three of these chapters together you can see the progression from what is imagined to what is true or is it the other way around? With Tim OBrien, it is never clear. The chapter Sweetheart of the Song Tra Bong is another questionable narrative. The reader learns in the first paragraph that the narrator, Rat Kiley, is not known for his accurate story telling ability. Rat had a reputation for exaggeration and overstatement, a compulsion to rev up the facts (OBrien 89). The protagonist, TimShow MoreRelatedPostmodernism in Literature5514 Words   |  23 Pagesnovelists he often criticized. Surrealist Rene Magrittes experiments with signification are used as examples by Jacques Derrida and Michel Foucault. Foucault also uses examples from Jorge Luis Borges, an important direct influence on many Postmodernist fiction writers. He is occasionally listed as a Postmodernist though he started writing in the 1920s. The influence of his experiments with metafiction and magical realism was not fully realized until the postmodern period.[2] Comparisons with modernist

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Mercer Mayer Little Criter Short Stories and the...

Mercer Mayer is an American artist and short story author who was born in Little Rock, Arkansas on December 30, 1943. He grew up in Honolulu, Hawaii, and attended art school in Honolulu and New York City. He has written over 300 short stories, some with the help of his current wife, Gina Mayer. The stories I have chosen to analyze are part of his â€Å"Little Critter† series. These stories include â€Å"Little Critter’s The Fussy Princess,† â€Å"Taking Care of Mom,† â€Å"I Was so Mad,† â€Å"The New Baby,† and â€Å"A Very Special Critter.† All of these stories were a big part of my childhood and hold a special place in my heart. Mercer Mayer’s writing style for all of these books is along the same line as far as vocabulary and transitional phrases. The†¦show more content†¦The difference between the books then, arguably, are the characters that are in focus. For example, in â€Å"A Very Special Critter,† the e ntire book is about a new student at Little Critter’s School: Alex. Alex is in a wheelchair, so Little Critter’s dad talks to him about how even though Alex is different, he is just like everybody else. This book is completely centered around the character that is being introduced. This is a common theme for Mayer; he has written many other stories completely based around a new character, such as â€Å"Spending Time with Grandpa† and â€Å"The Fussy Princess.† While characters are crucial to the diversity of Mayer’s stories, the setting in each story is also important. Throughout his stories, Mayer has chosen many different settings, along with some common settings as well. A specific time is never truly mentioned (except in the case of â€Å"The Fussy Princess†, where the time is said to be â€Å"a long, long time ago†), although it is easy to gauge which stories are older based on character development (the addition of Little Sister and then Little Brother later on). As for the setting, some stories are unique in that they are based on the setting in which they take place. For example, in â€Å"The Fussy Princess† the story starts out in Little Critter’s bedroom (he is telling his sister a bedtime story) but the setting is quickly moved to a medieval castle. Some of Mayer’s stories